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traditional salad dish in Russian cuisine, which is also popular in many other European countries, Iran, Israel, Mongolia and also throughout Latin America. In different modern recipes, it is usually made with diced boiled potatoes, carrots, brined dill pickles, green peas, eggs, celeriac, onions, diced boiled chicken (or sometimes ham or bologna sausage), tart apples, with salt, pepper, and mustard added to enhance flavor, dressed with mayonnaise. In many countries, the dish is commonly referred to as Russian salad
In post-revolutionary Russia, cheaper ingredients were substituted for the originals: grouse was replaced by chicken or sausage, crayfish by hard-boiled egg, cucumbers, olives and capers by pickled cucumbers and green peas.
Earlier, it always included cold meat such as ham or tongue, or fish. The mid-20th century restaurant version involved not just vegetables, but also pickled tongue, sausage, lobster meat, truffles, etc. garnished with capers, anchovy fillets, etc. Some versions mold it in aspic.
In modern usage, it is usually boiled diced vegetables bound in mayonnaise, with Doktorskaya-type sausage (a genericized Soviet bologna brand). The most common alternative version, where it is replaced with boiled or smoked chicken, is called Stolichny salad, after Ivanov's version.
A multitude of other versions, named, unnamed, and even trademarked exist, but only Olivier and Stolichny salad have entered the common vernacular of post-Soviet states.
The salad is widely popular in the Balkans. It is known as руска салата (ruska salata) which literally means "Russian salad" in Bulgaria, Serbia and Macedonia. It is similarly called ρώσικη σαλάτα (rossiki salata) in Greece and can be found on almost any restaurant's menu. The Bulgarian version of the salad usually consists of potatoes, carrots, peas, pickles and some sort of salami or ham. The Greek version usually contains no meat. In Croatia and Slovenia it is typically prepared without meat, and is usually called francuska salata in Croatian and francoska solata in Slovene, both meaning French salad. In Bosnia and Herzegovina both the ruska salata and francuska salata (which is essentially Russian salad prepared without meat) are very popular, especially during holidays. In Turkey it is known as Rus salatası. The Turkish version consists of boiled and sliced carrots and potatoes, sliced cucumber pickles, boiled peas and mayonnaise and is sometimes decorated with boiled and sliced eggs, black olives and beet root pickles. It is served as meze and is used as a filling for some sandwiches and kumpir ("potato" in Albanian and centre and eastern dialects in Turkish).
European cafes and delis often provide an entire range of Olivier-style salads, ranging from passable to gourmet. Additionally, cafeterias, convenience stores, and truck stops sell a number of sub-par factory packaged or locally made versions, mostly extremely simple, using basic ingredients flooded with an abundance of cheap mayonnaise-like dressing.